While Kinsey's research during the s influenced our understanding of sexual orientation, two other researchers influenced how sexual disorders were classified. These two other major contributors to the
Checkpoint the sexual response cycle of sexuality are William Masters, M. D a gynecologist and Virginia Johnson, Ph. Masters and Johnson were primarily interested in studying the biology of sexuality i.
Their work resulted in the establishment of the Sexual Response Cycle which continues to shape the way in which we view sexual functioning, even today. The Sexual Response Cycle is thought to include at least three phases: Our present sexual disorder classification system relies upon these three distinct phases of the sexual response cycle.
The Sexual Desire Phase includes thoughts, fantasies, and Checkpoint the sexual response cycle to engage in sexual activity. The second phase, Sexual Arousalincludes both physical and subjective arousal as described earlier. Subjective sexual arousal includes the subjective appraisal of "feelings" of being sexually aroused or "turned on," whereas physical sexual arousal refers to objective, physical indicators of sexual arousal.
Both men and women experience increased muscle tension, respiration rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasocongestion as physical indicators of sexual arousal. Vasocongestion refers to the engorgement of blood vessels. For men, vasocongestion produces a penile erection, swollen testes, and the scrotums moves up towards the body. For women, vasocongestion leads to the swelling of the clitoris and vaginal lips, vaginal lubrication, and enlargement of the uterus.
The third phase, Sexual Orgasm, begins once arousal reaches its Checkpoint the sexual response cycle intensity heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure increase sharply and is discharged in a series of muscular contractions in the pelvic region.
For most men, and some women, ejaculation occurs at this time. In men, ejaculation is simply the release of ejaculatory fluid which consists of prostate fluid and semen. While the vast majority of men ejaculate during orgasm a small minority of men do not. Additionally, it is not uncommon for a man to occasionally have a "dry" orgasm. Female ejaculation is a bit more complicated. Some women report ejaculating upon orgasm and researchers have yet to agree exactly what female ejaculate is composed of.
Some researchers have identified the fluid as being nothing more than urine while others have found it to have a compound that Checkpoint the sexual response cycle quite similar to prostate fluid.
In the 's, Helen Singer Kaplan, Ph. This fourth phase was called the Resolution Phase and refers to the "Checkpoint the sexual response cycle" changes that are produced when sexual arousal subsides and one returns to their pre-sexual state.
These phases of the sexual response cycle were originally proposed as a linear model meaning that desire must precede arousal, and arousal must precede orgasm, in a fixed linear sequence. APA, stipulates that sexual dysfunction includes three important components: If all three criteria are fulfilled, then we can talk about the individual's experience in terms of a disorder. More on how sexual disorders are classified and diagnosed follows in the section called Disorders of the Sexual Response Cycle.
While, Masters' and Johnson's work during the 's has received praise for their noteworthy and trail-blazing contributions to the field of sexual science and certainly that praise is well-deservedrecent research has identified problems with their original model. Basson has proposed that this model may be problematic when we consider female sexuality because the female sexual response cycle may be quite different than the male sexual response cycle.
In linear models, there is a beginning point, Desire Phase and a specific sequence of events that follow which lead to an end point Orgasmic Phase.
While this linear model does appear to be accurate for men, it does not seem to adequately describe the female response cycle.
Basson proposed an alternative to this linear model to describe the female sexual response cycle. Basson notes the female sexual response cycle is not linear and is better described as circular. Women may not necessarily experience first. Instead, they may not be thinking or fantasizing about sex at all, but once they are approached and sexually stimulated by their partner, they may become aroused and desire may result.
While a large portion of the research conducted by Masters and Johnson was devoted to studying the physiology of the sexual response cycle, they also made recommendations for couples experiencing sexual dysfunction.
A treatment developed by Masters and Johnson that is still prescribed today by sex therapists is called sensate focus.