The Concept of Equality and Well-being in Marx.
Elucidating definition of communism article presents Marx's conceptualization about substantive equality and well-being, which have an organic relation with human needs, labor and true liberty.
Because this conceptualization is anchored in premises and criteria that are incompatible with the capitalist understanding of these concepts, the paper uses it as a legitimate reference for the criticism of bourgeois social policy. This is based on the understanding that although Marx did not emphasize the theme of social protection, his vast work includes a type of sociology of well-being that must be unveiled.
What will be discussed here are the few but not unimportant efforts to detect in Marx 1 a type of sociology 2 of social well-being, which authorizes adopting "Elucidating definition of communism" as a legitimate reference for critical analyses of capitalist social policy.
This understanding will certainly not be exempt from controversy, given the complex particularity of Marx's theoretical work and the multiplicity of existing Marxisms - each one considering itself to be the true and only interpretation, if not the pioneer. This is not to mention the unproductive uses of Marx's work, such as those that reduce it to a type of Oracle of Delphi 3 that could provide answers to any question addressed to it.
Contrary to this posture, this article seeks to benefit from Marx's contribution to the theoretical criticism of capitalist social policy, exactly was initially stated: Understanding that Marx did not create philosophical systems, recipes or scientific models, I am also aware that I will have to confront the following challenges: The core of the text will address an implicit concept of well-being in Marx associated to his explicit theoretical and political interest in human emancipation or liberty from the bondage of capital, mediated by the conquest of real equality, which is contradictorily sought at the heart of capitalism itself.
To conduct this discussion I must complete a task that is not recent: Finally, it is fair to indicate that my interest in this instigating and barely explored analytical line, coupled to the stimulating and surprising work of Marx, was triggered by the reading of an old and enlightening essay about social policy by Mishra 6.
I am thus indebted to Mishra for the initial and providential push into the reflections that follow; while most of the path, particularly the stumbles, are exclusively my own responsibility. The centrality of social inequality for the understanding of the
Elucidating definition of communism of social well-being in Marx.
Although Marxian theory does not deal explicitly with social policy, at least one reason justifies the adoption of this theory as a reference for analysis of the theme: Thus, it cannot be said that there are no contributions in Marx's work that help to elucidate the real movement of capitalist social policy, given that the foundations of Marxian analyses about the accumulation of capital and the domination of the bourgeois state continue to be historically confirmed and are at the essence of the explanation of the rise of this policy.
In addition, in his philosophical studies, the question of equality liberty is recurringly contemplated, which, like his scientific treatment of this question in Capital - whose first volume was written in - allows identifying Marx's intellectual and moral commitment to the issue of social well-being.
His theories of revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, as well as those concerning the extinction of the state, of capital and of social classes, were not only built upon the reality of capitalist social inequality, but were based on the concept of equality that supported all of his work.
Elucidating definition of communism This allows the following deduction: This is because, to paraphrase Mishrait is the only theory that addresses the issue of inequality in a broad form, that is, in its economic, political and social dimensions, and in its capitalist and socialist versions.
In addition, given its transformative disposition and, therefore, its commitment to the construction of a truly egalitarian society, this theory is also the only one that at the same time that it offers a wealth of arguments to provide an X-ray of the determinants and effects of social inequality in capitalism, it foresees a solution for its eradication. But, before conducting a review of the contribution of this theory, even if indirectly, bequeathed to the study of capital social policy, it is fitting to explain two concepts that are, clearly or implicitly, central to understanding inequality in bourgeois societies and that, in this text, assume specific connotations: In general lines, accumulation is understood as the same historic process defined by Marx to counter the definition of the classical political economists.
Thus, instead of considering accumulation as savings
Elucidating definition of communism be invested in search of profit, for the purpose of individual and collective progress, as conceived by Adam Smithit is understood, as does Marx, that: Therefore, this process is directly related to the division of labor and to the extraction, by the capitalist, of the surplus-value produced by the worker, which is reconverted into additional capital; which in turn allows greater appropriation of surplus-value, which will be transformed into more additional capital and so on, thus characterizing capital's unending search for profit.
The success of this mechanism, considered by Marx the driving force of capitalist accumulation, requires the creation of a reserve army of workers that, through its competition with the active workers Elucidating definition of communism the labor market, prevents the establishment of an equilibrium between the value of the labor force and the value of the product it realizes. This fact, allied to the constant improvement in production from the use of more advanced and efficient methods and techniques, directly causes the deterioration of the social conditions of workers.
Therefore, "the accumulation of wealth in a pole is, simultaneously, accumulation of misery, torment of labor, slavery, ignorance, brutalization and moral degradation on the opposing pole, that
Elucidating definition of communism, from the side of class that produces its own product as capital" MARX,p.
However, while accumulation "Elucidating definition of communism" a more economic character, legitimation has a strong political connotation. This means that legitimation is more directly inscribed in the political spheres, given that only they can earn it or lose it because legitimation constitutes the capacity of an institutional order to be recognized and accepted. According to O'Connor capitalist state, while maintaining and creating conditions favorable to the accumulation process, simultaneously aims to assure minimum levels of social harmony by means of legitimation.
To do so, social policies can offer actions that help prevent or control discontent and rebellions; but can also stimulate accumulation as when they invest in labor training, or compulsorily activate the requirements of assistance policies for the labor market, as takes place today. This is why the concept of legitimation, which is opposite that of usurpation and coercion, forms with these a unity of opposites, because where there is a polemic Elucidating definition of communism the legitimation of the political order, the more this is desired.
Meanwhile, the search for legitimation takes place in various forms. What is of particular interest to this discussion is that which refers to the justification of the existence of the social state; that is the modern, interventionist, capitalist State, which, by creating conditions for accumulation and obtaining consensus, institutionalizes conflicts associated to the production and increase of social inequality.
In this way, the social state increasingly penetrates areas that previously had been the exclusive competence of the private sector, which
Elucidating definition of communism, for the effects of its own legitimation, contradictory situations, that is: This is the dilemma or the central contradiction of the social State, not observed by the functionalist analyses and curiously not emphasized by O'Connor or by various "Marxists", which can be explained by a Marxian analysis of the fundamental contradictions found in the concrete totality of the capitalist mode of production, and that are at the core of social inequality, as explained below.
Substantive social equality versus bourgeois rights in Marx's reflection. Tracing the concept of equality in Marx, whose work reveals a consistent unity between his philosophical, economic and political thinking, it is found that he refers to the identical social position of men in classless societies.
This is a concept that shifts the discussion of equality from the realm of the state an institution primarily committed to the dominant class to the realm of society without classes a locus where differences and conditions that can produce an unequal social position of men would be absent. In this way, Marx's position concerning equality does not indicate a defense of everyone's equality in terms of their personal needs; but the defense of the suppression of social classes and, as a consequence, of the equality of all in terms of socioeconomic position.
This is equivalent to saying that only the socialization of the means of production, and thus with the elimination of private property and of "Elucidating definition of communism" exploitation of labor inherent to class societies, can everyone count on equal opportunity of work and on salaries compatible with the production of each one.
Therefore, for Marx, equality is not confused with the uniformity of laws, as understood by liberal ideology, nor with the suppression of all and any personal possession, as understood by a vulgar socialist vision and that of primitive communism.
For Marx, the private property that should be suppressed is that of the means of production, with people free to maintain their differences and maintain and or cultivate habits and values that better correspond to the stimuli and material income of a collectivity that gives priority to the satisfaction of social needs.
In this way, the concept of equality has an affinity with that of liberty, considering that only in a society of economic and social well-being, free of a concern for survival, will men be capable of incorporating the cultural assets Elucidating definition of communism moral values that will be available to everyone; and also of fully realizing their capacities and potential MARX; ENGELS, Only in a society free of social classes can the state become extinct and thus, in the words of Engelsp.
Men, once emancipated as "species-being" - and not as only politically emancipated subjects, as Marx indicates in On The Jewish Questionor even as mere citizens identified with the formal liberty compatible with the inequality cultivated by liberal ideology - would Elucidating definition of communism free of salaried work, realized under coercion; therefore, they would be capable of enjoying the liberty of realizing their labor considered in its specific modality their own humanity.
Upon speaking of work, it should be clarified that it is around this category as a tertium comparationis 7 of real liberty and equality that Marx began to construct not only his economic theory, but also his idea of well-being, an idea that was plainly divergent from the liberal-bourgeois concept.
While in the later conception equality and liberty can be measured by the expansion of the rights of citizenship - which, since the 18th century have been presented as a possible conquest - in Marxian thinking they are not.
For Marx, equality and liberty can be measured based on the realization of labor as a vital and eternal need. Based on the supposition that under like social conditions, each person realizes, in principle as a valueequal work in the same period of time, Marx sees in work not only the substance common to all goods, but the unit of measure of well-being in society.
Work as a parameter of comparison must be evaluated by its duration and intensity abstracted from all and any individual difference of the Elucidating definition of communismif not it will no longer be a measure for comparison. Or, in his own terms: An unequal right,
Elucidating definition of communism the Marxian sense is specifically related to the superior phase of communism, when the contradictions of bourgeois society inherited by the phase of transition Elucidating definition of communism the capitalist to the communist order would have completely disappeared.
For this to take place, although Marx recognizes the limitations of the first phase of communism to in fact realize equality and liberty - or equalitarian liberty, to use Della Volpe's expression - he affirmed that in this phase, these contradictions, born in capitalist society "Elucidating definition of communism" a long and painful labor, are inevitable.
The law, he maintains, "can never be higher than the economic structure of society and its cultural development conditioned thereby" MARX,p. These are the first steps in the direction of an egalitarian society, towards well-being, in which, beyond the transformations of the means of production into common property, realized in the first phase, all of the disparities in the division of the social product are also eliminated and of the inequality of bourgeois law.
Thus, according to Marxp. This makes it clear that, for Marx, the society of well-being would not be confined to the limits of an economic revolution, that is, of a revolution solely concerned with the socialization of the means of production. In more than one text, in both the young and the mature Marx, political participation is contemplated as an important requirement for transformation, aimed at substantive equality.
This thinking is present from his criticisms of the Hegelian ideas of the state MARX,to his theories about society and political economy, passing through analyses of specific events like those of the revolution of in France, the dictatorship of Louis Napoleon, and the Paris Commune. Marx between false antitheses: It is in his writing on the Paris Commune, which is considered the prelude to his theory of revolution, that his position became clear concerning the problematic discussed until today about: Concerning the priority of economic premises, Marx affirmed that although the general context of France in did not exhibit the material conditions needed to overthrow the ruling classist monarchical regime, it did not fail to have exceptional super-structural conditions that politically facilitated this intent.
Given the "Elucidating definition of communism" of the state apparatus by the French-German War, the workers, even if insufficiently organized, were able to implant, through spontaneous action, forms of direct democracy, which were essential to the emancipatory political action of the proletariat. Here becomes clear the importance Marx gave to the strategic political struggles for the conquest of power, that Elucidating definition of communism, to the action of individuals.
It is this attitude, although it does not disregard economic determinations, in the final instance, that belies the stigma that Marx overemphasized economic factors that is affirmed by those who are restricted to a mechanical interpretation of his reference to "natural laws of capitalist production" in the preface of the first edition of Capital.
Related to this clarification is also the Marxian position concerning the workers participation in revolutionary progress, which reveals once again a refutation of the idea that for Marx, the sole protagonist of history is the proletariat.
Effectively, although Marx begins with the principle that only the independent struggle of the proletariat can lead to workers' liberation from the yoke of capital, his analysis of the Paris Commune gives a vote of confidence to the participation of popular groups in the struggle for structural transformation. Thus, in relation to this event, he demonstrates acceptance of all resources and tendencies that contribute to the reconquering of political power by the popular masses, considering to be most important, in the Republic implanted by the communards of Paris in addition to the substitution of the permanent army by the "armed people"the creation of an executive committed to the people and administeed by it.
This is what can be inferred from the following statement: Nevertheless, in terms of the historic importance of the political form assumed by the Commune, which was characterized by alliances between the working class and broad sectors of the French population - the urban petty bourgeoisie and peasants - and by universal suffrage in the election of the directive councils, Marx still Elucidating definition of communism not see this as a socialist revolution, but as a necessary preparatory phase to achieve this goal.
For this reason it is understood that for Marx the Paris Commune represented a concrete example of anti-capitalist reform within capitalism, which took shape in the transition from a monarchy to a republic, and as such, was a prerequisite to a later and more radical transformation. The Commune - an uprising of the discontented masses of the proletariat and petty-bourgeois against the French monarchy - before realizing the transformation of the social and political organization of France into a federation of autonomous municipalities, began to support the route to communism, supported in formulas that, according to Lenin's criticismsignified a petty-bourgeois democratic government; or that is, a popular government that, despite its radical break with the bourgeois state and the implantation of direct democracy, did not outline, as Marx foresaw, the route to future proletarian revolutions; and this is because, among other problems, the revolutionaries confused the struggle for the republic with the struggle for socialism.
Nevertheless, despite the contradictions and obstacles experienced by the Commune, it was the successful preamble to a socialist revolution; and as a process of popular political participation, it continues to be the most significant example of the action of anticapitalist movements linked to Marxian thinking. In addition, the history of the Commune awoke strong interest among Marxist intellectuals in the West, who came to recognize, according to Mommsen and Meschkat, that "Elucidating definition of communism" thinking had only become converted into the Marxism that is known today thanks to his reflections about experiences of the Paris Commune.
Moreover, the rebellions ofin France, not only revived even if temporarily the experience of the Commune, but also came to demand a deeper theoretical analysis of political participation, conceived by Marx, in the current revolutionary process, with an eye on a "society" of well-being.
Therefore, the tracing of the concept of well-being in Marx's work will also have to consider his writings on economics and detect in them the reaffirmation of his interest in the conquest of social equality found in his political writings. Marx and the English welfare institutions. In both his political and economic reflections, Marx was little concerned 8 with the welfare institutions found at that time the Poor Lawoffor example and with the growing state intervention in Victorian England; nor in understanding them in their specificities.
Foreseeing the extinction of the state, Marx did not see how well-being would be achieved through the operations of state organization that were committed primarily to the interests of the dominant classes. Elucidating definition of communism, he maintained that the state would always be a tool for the domination and maintenance of the class structure and as such, an institution incapable of guaranteeing social well-being.
Therefore, to detect Marx's involvement with some aspect related to the regulatory action of the state in the social field, and then draw inferences about his position concerning the conquest of well-being by workers at the heart of capitalism, what should be examined is the factory legislation discussed in Capital.
Here, unlike any of the classical theoreticians or even the old and modern socialists, Marx analyzed laws that regulated factory activities the Factory Acts ; reports of the public health authorities; factory inspections; and the various investigative commissions established by the English Parliament. Even so, the study of the factory legislation as an institution for worker protection, assumed a limited scope in his theory.
The analysis merely collaborated with his broader proposal to better understand the social relations of production in its Elucidating definition of communism determinations and in its more evolved form of representation and control under capitalism. Therefore, in terms of Marx's contributions, both to the study of legal regulation of capitalist labor processes, to issues related to the living conditions of workers, and to social programs as in the case of accident prevention, healthcare and educationthe profile of his concept of well-being must be detected in passages spread throughout his work.
This is not to say that Marx's analysis of English factory legislation and about equality and liberty cannot indicate elements of a Marxian sociology of well-being. What is to be emphasized is that this sociology, because it is not easily perceivable, becomes fallacious if it is restricted to isolated interpretations of Marxian thought about the theme. It is in the attempt to avoid this fallacy that I intend to relate Marx's analysis of factory legislation with his positions about political participation inscribed in his reflections on the Paris Commune.
And based on this relation, identify the common thread that articulates the philosophical, scientific and political principles that serve as a basis for his transformative vision. Actually, it is not possible to differentiate the political and scientific limits of Marx's theory and praxis, or of his intellectual and ethical posture, given that these spheres are inseparable. Therefore, it is valid to affirm that there were never breaks between the young and the mature Marx, nor between Marx the philosopher, scientist or political activist.
In reality, Marx's great originality consists essentially in his impressive ability to articulate, with critical creativity, the multiple aspects of social life and the multiple intellectual supports of various thinkers from different tendencies. This fact is substantiated in his analysis of factory legislation, a type of case study within the realm of his theory about labor, in which can also be identified his position in relation to social reform, to the bipolar confrontation of classes and to the priority of the economic over the political, already detected in his writings on the Paris Commune.
Effectively, in his study of factory legislation, Marx reaffirmed his regard for the struggle of workers within capitalism, with the goal of improving their living and working conditions and their salaries. This, in his perspective, is perfectly compatible with the correlation of forces existing in the realm of the productive system and with the disputes related to the confrontation between the antagonistic interests of the fundamental classes bourgeois and proletariat.
Thus, he understands that the effort to achieve the factory legislation to be one of the first conscious reactions of the working class against the exploitation to which it was submitted, and for which they had the support of other groups and class factions, who were "Elucidating definition of communism" harmed by the privileges and domination of the industrial capitalists, as was the case of the agrarian aristocracy.
Without underestimating the importance of these adhesions to labor's cause a fact that once again indicates his predisposition to emphasize all the forces that contribute to the success of the worker's struggle, and his non-alignment to an orthodox concept of bipolar class conflictwhat appeared to him to be more significant in this process was not so much the conquest of this legislation, but the restriction this conquest imposed on the despotism of capital.
reflection on the relations between Althusser and “communism “ by definition that Althusser himself had, or rather it attempts Elucidating definition of communism elucidate it. For much of the twentieth century, The Communist Manifesto was accepted as.
Is it possible to define human needs, values, and goals outside the material This work elucidates the revolutionary implications of the capitalist system of. Communism portal · coolwallpaper.info Karl Marx portal · coolwallpaper.info Philosophy portal · v · t · e. Dialectical materialism is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based Joseph Stalin further delineated and defined dialectical and historical materialism as the world outlook of Marxism-Leninism, and.