Sex reassignment surgery or SRS also known as gender reassignment surgerygender confirmation surgerygenital reconstruction surgery surgeryor sex realignment surgery is the surgical procedure or procedures by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender.
It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people. Related genital surgeries may also be performed on intersex people, often in infancy. A statement by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture condemns the nonconsensual use of normalization surgery on intersex people. People who pursue sex reassignment surgery are usually referred to as transsexual derived from "trans", meaning "across", "through", or "change", and "sexual", pertaining to the sexual characteristics —but not necessarily
Bbc transsexual surgery actions—of a person.
While who have undergone and completed SRS Bbc transsexual surgery sometimes referred to as transsexed individuals,  the term transsexed is not to be confused with the term transsexualwhich may also refer to individuals who have not undergone SRS, yet whose anatomical sex may not match their psychological sense of personal gender identity. Sex reassignment surgery performed on unconsenting minors babies and children may result in catastrophic outcomes including PTSD and suicide—such as in the David Reimer case, following a botched circumcision when the individual's sexual identity determined by neuroanatomical brain wiring is discrepant with the surgical reassignment previously imposed.
Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii recommended that physicians do not perform surgery on children until they are old enough to give informed consent, assign such infants in the gender to which they will probably best adjust, and refrain from adding shame, stigma and secrecy to the issue, by assisting intersexual people to meet and associate Bbc transsexual surgery others of like condition. Diamond considered the intersex condition as a difference of sex development, not as a disorder.
The best known of these surgeries are those that reshape the genitals, which are also known as genital reassignment surgery or genital reconstruction surgery GRS - or bottom surgery the latter is named in contrast to top surgerywhich is surgery to the breasts; bottom surgery does not refer to surgery on the buttocks in this context.
However, the meaning of "sex reassignment surgery" has been clarified by the medical subspecialty organization, the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Bbc transsexual surgeryto include any of a larger number of surgical procedures performed as part of a medical treatment for "gender dysphoria" or "transsexualism".
According to WPATH, medically necessary sex reassignment surgeries include "complete hysterectomy, bilateral mastectomy, chest reconstruction or augmentation The array of medically indicated surgeries differs between trans women male to female and trans men female to male. For trans women, genital reconstruction usually involves the surgical construction of a vaginaby means of penile inversion or the sigmoid colon neovagina technique; or, more recently, non-penile inversion techniques that make use of scrotal tissue to construct the vaginal canal.
For trans men, genital reconstruction may involve construction of a penis through either phalloplasty or metoidioplasty. For both trans women and trans men, genital surgery Bbc transsexual surgery also involve other medically necessary ancillary procedures, such as orchiectomypenectomymastectomy or vaginectomy.
Penile inversion vaginoplasty is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States. It is a relatively safe procedure.
These require additional surgery to fix and are often fixed by colorectal surgeons. As underscored by WPATH, Bbc transsexual surgery medically assisted transition from one sex to another may entail any of a variety of non-genital surgical procedures, any of which are considered "sex reassignment surgery" when performed as part of treatment for gender dysphoria. For trans men, these may include mastectomy removal of the breasts and chest reconstruction the shaping of a male-contoured chestor hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy removal of ovaries and Fallopian tubes.
For some trans women, facial feminization surgeryhair implants, and breast augmentation are also aesthetic components of their surgical treatment. People with HIV or Bbc transsexual surgery C may have difficulty finding a surgeon able to perform successful surgery. Many surgeons operate in small private clinics that cannot treat potential complications in these populations.
Some surgeons charge higher fees for HIV and hepatitis C-positive patients; other medical professionals assert that it is unethical to deny surgical or hormonal treatments to transgender people solely on the basis of their HIV or hepatitis status.
Other health conditions such as diabetesabnormal blood clottingostomiesand obesity do not usually present a problem to experienced surgeons. The conditions do increase the anesthetic risk and the rate of post-operative complications.
Surgeons may require overweight patients to reduce their Bbc transsexual surgery before surgery, any patients to refrain from hormone replacement Bbc transsexual surgery surgery, and smoking patients to refrain from smoking before and after surgery.
Surgeons commonly stipulate the latter regardless of the type of operation. Medical advances may eventually make childbearing possible by using a donor uterus long enough to carry a child to term as anti-rejection drugs do
Bbc transsexual surgery seem to affect the fetus. Further in the future, stem cell biotechnology may also make this possible, with no need for anti-rejection drugs. Sex reassignment surgery can be difficult to obtain, due to a combination of financial barriers and lack of providers.
An increasing number of surgeons are now training to perform such surgeries. For many individuals, these may require a minimum duration of psychological evaluation and living as a member of the target gender full-time, sometimes called the real life experience RLE sometimes mistakenly referred to as the real life test RLT before genital reconstruction or other sex reassignment surgeries are permitted. Standards of Care usually give certain very specific "minimum" requirements as guidelines for progressing with treatment for transsexualism, including accessing cross-gender hormone replacement or many surgical interventions.
Alternative local standards of care exist, such as in the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy. Most surgeons require two letters of recommendation for sex reassignment surgery. At least one of these letters must be from a mental health professional experienced in diagnosing gender identity disorder, who has known the patient for over a year.
Letters must state that sex reassignment surgery is the correct course of treatment for the patient. Many medical professionals and numerous professional associations have stated that surgical interventions should not be required in order for transsexual individuals to change sex designation on identity documents.
In some jurisdictions legal gender change is prohibited in any circumstances, even after genital or other surgery or treatment. Patients of sex reassignment surgery may experience changes in their physical health and quality of life, the side effects of sex steroid treatment. Hence, transgender people should be well informed of these risks before choosing to undergo SRS. Several studies tried to measure the quality of life and self-perceive physical health using different scales.
For instance, trans men obtained a higher self-perceived health score than women because they had a higher level of testosterone than them. Trans women who had undergone Bbc transsexual surgery feminization surgery have reported higher satisfaction in different aspects of their quality of life, including their general physical health. Looking specifically at transsexual people's genital sensitivities, trans men and trans women are capable of maintaining their genital sensitivities after SRS.
However, these are counted upon the procedures and surgical tricks which are used to preserve the sensitivity. Considering the importance of genital sensitivity in helping transsexual individuals to avoid unnecessary harm or injuries to the genitals, allowing trans men to obtain an erection and perform the insertion of the erect penile prosthesis after phalloplasty the ability for transsexual to experience erogenous and tactile sensitivity in their "Bbc transsexual surgery" genitals is one of the essential objectives surgeons want to achieve in SRS.
Erogenous sensitivity is measured by Bbc transsexual surgery capabilities to reach orgasms in genital sexual activities, like masturbation and intercourse. After sex reassignment surgery, transsexuals people who underwent cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery tend to be less gender dysphoric.
They also normally function well both socially and psychologically. Anxiety, depression and hostility levels were lower after sex reassignment surgery. In these studies, most of the patients have reported being very happy with the Bbc transsexual surgery and very few of the patients have expressed regret for undergoing sex reassignment Bbc transsexual surgery. Although studies have suggested that the positive consequences of sex reassignment surgery outweigh the negative consequences,  it has been suggested that most studies investigating the outcomes of sex reassignment surgery are flawed as they have only included a small percentage of sex reassignment surgery patients in their studies.
Persistent regret can occur after sex reassignment surgery.
Regret may be due to unresolved gender dysphoria, or a weak and fluctuating sense of identity, and may even lead to suicide. Many patients perceive the outcome of the surgery as not only medically but also psychologically important.
Social support can help them to relate to their minority identity, ascertain their trans identity and reduce minority stress.
The majority of the transsexual individuals have reported enjoying better sex Bbc transsexual surgery and improved sexual satisfaction after sex reassignment surgery. Hence, they were frigid and not enthusiastic about engaging in sexual activity. In consequence, transsexuals individuals who have undergone SRS are more satisfied with their bodies and experienced less stress when participating in sexual activity. Most of the individuals have reported that they have experienced sexual excitement during sexual activity, including masturbation.
The female-to-male transgender individuals reported that they had been experiencing intensified and stronger excitements while male-to-female individuals have been encountering longer and more gentle feelings.
The rates of masturbation have also changed after sex reassignment surgery for both trans women and trans men. Moreover, trans men also had a lower sexual satisfaction with their sexual life than trans women. Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to birth. The Iranian government's response to homosexuality is to endorse, and fully pay for, sex reassignment surgery.
The leader of Iran's Islamic RevolutionAyatollah Ruhollah Khomeiniissued a fatwa declaring sex reassignment surgery permissible for "diagnosed transsexuals". Thailand is the country that performs the most sex reassignment surgeries, followed by Iran. India is offering affordable sex reassignment surgery to a growing number of medical Bbc transsexual surgery. Inthe United States Defense Health Agency for the first time approved payment for sex reassignment surgery for an active-duty U.
The patient, an infantry soldier who identifies as a woman, had already begun a course of treatment for gender reassignment. The procedure, which the treating doctor deemed medically necessary, was performed on November 14 at a private hospital, Bbc transsexual surgery U.
Hart, an American TB specialist, becomes one of the first female-to-male transsexuals to undergo hysterectomy and gonadectomy for the relief of gender dysphoria. In Berlin inDora Richterbecame the first known transgender woman to undergo the vaginoplasty  surgical approach. This was
Bbc transsexual surgery by Lili Elbe in "Bbc transsexual surgery" during — She started with the removal of her original sex organs, the operation supervised by Dr.
Lili went on to have four more subsequent
Bbc transsexual surgery that included an unsuccessful uterine transplantthe rejection of which resulted in death.
An earlier Bbc transsexual surgery recipient of this was Magnus Hirschfeld 's housekeeper but their identity is unclear at this time. As of some European countries require forced sterilisation for the legal recognition of sex reassignment.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. Health care and medicine. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Commissioner Reproductive health Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female Yogyakarta Principles.
Torture in Healthcare Settings: American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Archives of Sexual Behavior. The scandal of genital mutilation surgery on infants pp. Fast Lane imprint of East Street Publications. As Nature Made Him: Retrieved 1 August Bbc transsexual surgery Guidelines for dealing with persons with ambiguous genitalia". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Retrieved 24 April Transgender postwoman Carla recently underwent full sex change surgery and is gradually getting used to life as a woman.
Bbc transsexual surgery five. Oct 1, Programme website: coolwallpaper.info Vinnessa goes into hospital to have her gender confirmation operation.